The Canadian government is moving to crack down on bribery of foreign officials by Canadian businesses. Canada’s Corrupt Foreign Public Officials Act (the "CFPOA") was passed in 1999 but the legislation and the manner in which it has been enforced by Canada has been criticized by organizations such as the OECD and Transparency International. In the past few years, however, there have been two unprecedented anti-bribery cases involving substantial fines: Griffiths Energy International was fined $10.35 million in 2013, and Niko Resources was fined $9.5 million in 2011.
Adding to the impetus for change in Canada has been recent legislative changes in the United States that limit or close exemptions and increase the penalties for bribery of foreign officials. Most recently, the Canadian government has passed a bill that amends the CFPOA in a number of key areas.